Monthly Archives: August 2020

The Diode

By: Vineeta Tawney

What is a Diode?
Let’s start by answering the most basic question. What is a Diode?

The two terminals are named as Anode and Cathode, we will get into the symbol and how to identify the terminals later, but for now just remember that any diode will have only two terminals (at least most of them) and they are Anode and Cathode. Another golden rule with diodes is that they allow current to pass through them in only one direction that is from Anode to Cathode. This property of diode is what makes it useful in many applications. Continue reading

AI in sales and marketing

Best Application of AI for Sales and Marketing

By: Vineeta Tawney

Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Digital Marketing
Some AI applications that are already revolutionizing the digital market are:
1. Creating and Generating Content
AI can help you save lots of time and resources. For example, AI will already write reports and news based on data and information.
Intelligent tools like Wordsmith, Articoolo, and Quill are already being used by the Associated Press and Forbes to make news, which leads to clicks on their websites. Using templates and fill-in-the-blanks to enter data and keywords will produce unique content that provides the impression a human wrote it. So, you’ve most likely read content that was generated by AI since BBC, CBS, the New York Times and Reuters are also implementing this technology. Continue reading

Microbial Biofuel

A peek into what is Microbial Biofuels

By: Vineeta Tawney

Introduction to Microbial Biofuels
The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum-based fuels.
These fuels are still the primary source of energy for the world’s developed nations, and yet it is agreed that these traditional sources of energy cannot continue to power humanity’s growth into the future.
The sources of these fossil fuels are becoming exhausted and found major contribution in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by consumption of fossil fuels to fullfill the energy demand ,which leads to many negative effects including climate change, receding of glaciers, rise in sea level, loss of biodiversity, etc. Increasing energy demand leads to an increase in crude oil price, directly affected to global economic activity.
Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and GHG emissions have led to a move towards alternative, renewable, sustainable, efficient and cost-effective energy sources with lesser emissions. For all of these reasons, there is great incentive to pursue the development of renewable energy sources, particularly microbial biofuels.
Among many energy alternatives, biofuels, hydrogen, natural gas and syngas (synthesis gas) may likely emerge as the four strategically important sustainable fuel sources in the foreseeable future.
Classification of Biofuels
Biofuels are classified into two parts first is Primary biofuels and second is Secondary biofuels.

Fig. 1 : Classification of biofuels
1. Primary biofuels :
Primary biofuels are natural and unprocessed biomass such as firewood, wood chips and pellets, and are mainly those where the organic material is utilised essentially in its natural and non-modified chemical form. Primary fuels are directly combusted, usually to supply cooking fuel, heating or electricity production needs in small and large-scale industrial applications.

2. Secondary biofuels :
Secondary fuels are modified primary fuels, which have been processed and produced in the form of solids (e.g. charcoal), or liquids (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil), or gases (e.g. biogas,
synthesis gas and hydrogen). Secondary fuels can be used for multiple ranges of applications, including transport and high-temperature industrial processes. Now more advanced and efficient conversion technologies exist for the extraction of biofuels in solid, liquid and gaseous forms from materials such as wood crops and waste material.
Advantages of Microbial Biofuels
Biofuels provide many positives and are essential in shifting away from the usage of fossil fuels. They provide a high amount of energy security in that they are constantly available and sustainable which allows for a solid supply of affordable energy for consumers and industry.
Utilising agricultural residual and waste substrates as raw materials will minimize the potential conflict between food and fuel and also produced the bioferlizer and biopesticides. Biofuels produced from lignocellulosic materials generate low net GHG emissions, hence reducing environmental impacts.
Biodiesel is considered a “carbon neutral” fuel, as any carbon dioxide released from its burning was previously captured from the atmosphere during the growth of the vegetative crop that was used for the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel is said to have a lower flash point than petroleum derived diesel so its transport is safer and easier.
Improving Microbial Biofuel Production: Recent Developments
A common problem of biofuel production is that the biofuel itself is frequently toxic to the cell. This is the case with ethanol, the most common biofuel, and others. Furthermore, the accumulation of the biofuel within the organism itself often down regulates the pathway that produces it, decreasing production efficiency. The research group of Dunlop et al. sought to address this problem by engineering E. coli, introducing many different efflux pumps from different species of microbes to investigate whether or not the pumps would improve the organism’s ability to survive biofuel stress, and determine whether it would improve biofuel production.

Scope and Extent of AI to be taught to kids

Scope and Extent of AI to be taught to Kids

By: Vineeta Tawney

AIforKidsToday’s tech-savvy kids are the first ones to grow up with Artificial Intelligence as their constant learning partner.
As many are unaware about how AI functions and how it can impact their lives, it is up to educators and parents to guide kids through this new experience, in a way that it can be beneficial for them, and not harmful. In layman’s terms, AI is just robots that think and feel like humans.
Educators need to instruct children about the functioning of AI. Continue reading

Logistic Regression

Logistic Regression

By: Vineeta Tawney

What is Logistic regression?
It is a classification algorithm for predictive analysis. It is used to describe datasets also used to explain the relationship between one dependent variable and one or more independent variables.
Dependent variable: Predictable variable. It should be binary or dichotomous.
Independent variable: other than the dependent variable which influences the dependent variable.
Estimating the probabilities using the logistic function is logistic regression. Logistic regression is used when the response variable is categorical in nature.
Logistic regression is used in spam detection, credit card fraud, Health, Marketing, Banking.
Linear regression is not appropriate because it predicts the value outside the range. Linear regression is used when the response is a continuous variable. And used to predict the linear relationship between a target and san analyst.
The equation of linear regression is,
Where X is the explanatory variable,
Y is the dependent variable,
a is a slope of the line,
B is intercept.
On the other hand, logistic regression produces results between values 0 and 1, which is limited to 2 values.

Linear regression and logistic regression.
Logistic Function
It is also called as a sigmoid function. It is an S-shaped curve as shown in the figure.
It can map numbers into the values between 0 and 1.
1 / (1 + e^-value)
Here, e is the base of a natural algorithm.

Logistic Function.
It is the curve of the values between -5 to 5 converted into the range of 0 and 1.
Equation of logistic function can be written as,
Y(t)=A+{K-A \over (C+Qe^{{-Bt}})^{{1/\nu }}}
It can also be written as,
Y(t)=A+{K-A \over (C+e^{{-B(t-M)}})^{{1/\nu }}}
Where M is starting time,
(t_{0})=A+{K-A \over (C+1)^{{1/\nu }}} )
Including Q and M,
Y(t)=A+{K-A \over (C+Qe^{{-B(t-M)}})^{{1/\nu }}}
Where, A = Lower asymptote;
K= Lower asymptote;
B= the growth rate;
Q= related to value Y (0);
C= typically takes a value of 1.
Types of logistic regression:
• Binary logistic regression: It can have only two best fitting outputs, e.g. email is spam or not spam. It is an extension for logistic regression, where the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous. Binary logistic regression predicts that the dependent variable is stochastic in nature. It is the task of predicting the log odds of an event. There should be no noise in the data and highly correlated inputs should not be present in the data.

• Multinomial logistic regression: We can consider it as an extension of binary logistic regression. It can give us more than two best fitting outcomes. The Dependent variable is nominal with two or more values. We can use multinomial logistic regression to understand which type of drink customer likes on the basis of location in the US and age.

• Ordinal logistic regression: It is the extension of multinomial logistic regression. In ordinal regression, we can determine which of the independent variable have a statically important effect on the dependent variable. It can be used to describe dataset and to explain the relationship between one dependent nominal variable and one or more continuous level dependent variable.

Preparing data for logistic regression:
The assumption made in logistic regression is the same as the assumption made in linear regression.

Binary output variable: It will calculate the probability of an instance which can be 0 or 1.
Logistic regression is planned for a two-class classification problem.

Remove noise: There should be no error in the output variable, removing outlier and misclassified data from the input data is necessary.

Removing correlated inputs: If we use correlated inputs model can overfit.

Gaussian distribution: It is a linear algorithm, Data transforms of the input variable
That better discover this linear relationship can produce a more accurate model.

Fail to converge: If the data is sparse this can happen also we should avoid correlated data.
The coefficients in logistic regression are predicted using a procedure called as maximum likelihood estimation.
Logistic regression coefficient:

Application of logistic regression:
• It can be used for image categorization and segmentation.
• It is used for the image processing of many applications.
• It is used for handwriting recognition.
• In the healthcare industry for analysis of millions of people for myocardial infarction within a period of 10 years.
• Reconstructing the budget of organization or industry.

Ocean Warming – Causes and Effects

Ocean Warming – Causes and Effects

By: Vineeta Tawney
For CNESystems

What is Ocean Warming?

Fig. 1 : Ocean Warming
• The oceans and atmosphere work together to form Earth’s climate. However, Earth’s climate is changing. This is partly because of global warming. Global warming affects everything on Earth, including its oceans. When ocean temperatures rise, this causes problems across the planet.
• The ocean absorbs most of the excess heat from greenhouse gas emissions, leading to rising ocean temperatures.
• Increasing ocean temperatures affect marine species and ecosystems. Rising temperatures cause coral bleaching and the loss of breeding grounds for marine fishes and mammals.
• Rising ocean temperatures also affect the benefits humans derive from the ocean – threatening food security, increasing the prevalence of diseases and causing more extreme weather events and the loss of coastal protection.
• Establishing marine protected areas and putting in place adaptive measures, such as precautionary catch limits to prevent overfishing, can protect ocean ecosystems and shield humans from the effects of ocean warming.
Why is it important?
• Ocean warming leads to deoxygenation – a reduction in the amount of oxygen dissolved in the ocean – and sea-level rise – resulting from the thermal expansion of sea water and continental ice melting. The rising temperatures, coupled with ocean acidification, affect marine species and ecosystems and, consequently, the fundamental benefits humans derive from the ocean.
• Impact on marine species and ecosystems
Marine fishes, seabirds and marine mammals all face very high risks from increasing temperatures, including high levels of mortalities, loss of breeding grounds and mass movements as species search for favourable environmental conditions. Coral reefs are also affected by increasing temperatures which cause coral bleaching and increase their risk of mortality.
• Impact on humans
• Rising temperatures also affect vegetation and reef-building species such as corals and mangroves, which protect coastlines from erosion and sea-level rise. Rising sea levels and erosion will particularly affect low-lying island countries in the Pacific Ocean, destroying housing and infrastructure and forcing people to relocate.
• The rise in sea surface temperatures is causing more severe hurricanes and the intensification of El Nino events bringing droughts and floods. This can have significant socio-economic and health effects in some regions of the world.
• Warming ocean temperatures are linked to the increase and spread of diseases in marine species. Humans risk direct transmission of these diseases when consuming marine species, or from infections of wounds exposed in marine environments.
Causes and Effect of Ocean Warming
• One of the most commonly predicted effects of global ocean warming on marine communities is a pole ward shift in the distributional boundaries of species with an associated replacement of cold-water species by warm-water species.
• However, these types of predictions are imprecise and based largely on broad correlations in uncontrolled studies that examine changes in the distribution or abundances of species in relation to seawater temperature.
• Our study used an 18-year sampling program in intertidal and sub tidal habitats and before–after, control–impact analyses. We show that a 3.58C rise in seawater temperature, induced by the thermal outfall of a power-generating station, over 10 years along 2 km of rocky coastline in California resulted in significant community-wide changes in 150 species of algae and invertebrates relative to adjacent control areas experiencing natural temperatures. Contrary to predictions based on current biogeographic models, there was no trend toward warmer-water species with southern geographic affinities replacing colder water species with northern affinities.
• Instead, the communities were greatly altered in apparently cascading responses to changes in abundance of several key taxa, particularly habitat-forming sub tidal kelps and intertidal foliose red algae. Many temperature-sensitive algae decreased greatly in abundance, whereas many invertebrate grazers increased.
• The responses of these benthic communities to ocean warming were mostly unpredicted and strongly coupled to direct effects of temperature on key taxa and indirect effects operating through ecological interactions.

Shambhavi Mudra

By: Vineeta Tawney

What is shambhavi Mudra?
Shambhavi Mudra is called as ‘the eyebrow center gazing gesture’. It is one of the highly regarded and practices gesture in Yogic and Tantric texts. It is very powerful gesture used in meditation. It is used to bring the mind into a state of balance and experience higher states of consciousness.

What does shambhavi Mahamudra mean?
Shambhavi Mahamudra kriya is a protocol within the Isha Yoga lineage that includes both pranyanama and meditation-based techniques. … Shambhavi Mahamudra is an integrative system of several breathing techniques that incorporate multiple limbs of traditional Raja Yoga or the yoga described by Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras.

My new found knowledge on Adi Shankaracharya

Four Maths – Char Dhams – established by Shankara
During his travels across the length and breadth of India, he established four maths (ashrams) to unify the scattered and diverse groups of Sannyasis. Four maths were established, about 700 AD, in four different corners of India. He selected four of his senior most disciples to head each of these maths. Each of these maths was assigned the task of maintaining and preserving for posterity, one of the four Vedas (the main scriptures of Hinduism) and a Maha Vakya. Shankaracharya reorganised all the Sannyasis in India into ten main groups (the Dasanami Sannyasa Tradition) allocated to different maths.

Historical and literary evidences also exist which prove that the Kanchi Kamakoti Mutt at Kanceepuram, in Tamil Nadu, was also founded by Shankaracharya.

Chatur Dhams

Direction South India West India North India East India
Place Sringeri Dwaraka Badrinath Puri
Math Name Sringeri Math Sarada Math Jyotir Math Govardhan Math
Acharya Sureswara Hastamalaka Trotaka Padmapada
Veda Yagur Sama Atharva Rik
Mantra Aham brahmāsmi Tattvamasi Ayamātmā brahma Prajñānam brahma
Sanyasa Order Saraswati, Bharati, Puri Tirtha, Ashrama Giri, Parvata, Sagara Vanam, Aranyam
The Puri Sannyasa Tradition
The Sannyasis of Mata Amritanandamayi Math belong to the Puri Sannyasa tradition. According to the tradition set forth by Adi Shankaracharya, the Puri Sannyasa tradition is characterised by the following – formal allegiance to the Sringeri Math

first Acharya (teacher) – Sureswara
follow the Bhurivara Sampradaya (customs)
traditional Kshetra (Temple) – Rameshwar
traditional Deva (God) – Adi Varaha (The incarnation of Lord Vishnu in the form of a boar)
traditional Devi (Goddess) – Kamakshi (Sharada)
traditional Veda – Yajur Veda
traditional Upanishad – Kathopanishad
traditional Mahavakya (statement revealing the nature of Absolute Reality ) – Aham Brahmasmi
traditional Tirtha (Holy River) – Tungabhadra
traditional Gotra (descent or lineage) – Bhaveshavar Rishi

Legends of Shankaracharya
Shower of Gold

Before he was eight, as a young Brahmachari, the young Shankara went to a house to beg for his daily food. The hostess was a kind but very poor lady. All she could give him was a small amalaka fruit. Shankara was deeply touched by the sincerity of this poor lady and he invoked Goddess Lakshmi (the Goddess of wealth) by singing spontaneously the Kanakadhara Stotra The legend has it that the Goddess showered golden amalaka fruits into the house.

Changing the course of the Purna river

Shankara’s mother used to go a long way everyday to take her bath in the Purna river. One day the young Shankara found her lying unconscious, due to exhaustion. He prayed to the Lord and the next morning the river started flowing by the side of his house.

Guru Govindapada’s blessings

During the rainy season, the river Narmada was in spate. The flood waters rose and were about to enter the cave in which his Guru was sitting, deeply immersed in Samadhi. His disciples did not dare to disturb him, though his life was in danger. Then Shankaracharya placed his kamandalu (water pot) at the entrance of the cave saying that it would absorb all the waters of the flood. His words came true. The flood waters could not disturb his Guru’s meditation. Guru Govindapada blessed him saying “Just as you contained the flood waters in your kamandalu, you should write commentaries containing the essence of the Vedantic scriptures. By this work you will gain eternal glory.”


When Shankara broached the topic of his embracing the Sannyasa way of life, his mother was reluctant to give him her permission and blessings. One day, however, when he accompanied his mother for a bath in the river, a crocodile caught hold of his leg and started dragging him. His mother could only stand and watch helplessly. Then Shankara called out to his mother, asking her to permit him to become a Sannyasi at least during these last moments of his life. She agreed and miraculously the crocodile let go of Shankara’s leg. To console his mother he promised her that he would come back to her at the time of her death and perform the last rites.

Final rites of his mother

Shankaracharya was some where in North India when he came to know of his mother’s impending death. By using his Yogic powers, travelled through the air to reach her quickly. At her request he granted her divine visions.

When he tried to arrange the cremation of his mother’s body, his relatives refused to help him on the grounds that as a Sannyasi he was not permitted to perform funeral rites. Normally this would have been a serious setback as a cremation involves rituals, which would require physical assistance by a few people. So Shankaracharya performed a miracle. He made a funeral pyre out of plantain stalks. After placing the body on the pyre he took some water and after chanting a few mantras he sprinkled the water on the pyre. Immediately the pyre caught fire. Thus he was able to complete the funeral rites without help.