Monthly Archives: July 2019

The Current trend in space science-India

Author: Vineeta Tawney

Date: 06-04-2019


In India, we have the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), the space agency for space science research and planetary exploration.

Indian space program encompasses research in areas like:

  • Astronomy
  • Astrophysics
  • Planetary
  • Earth sciences
  • Atmospheric sciences
  • Theoretical physics









Balloons, sounding rockets, space platforms, and ground-based facilities support these research efforts. A series of sounding rockets are available for atmospheric experiments. Several scientific instruments have tested on satellites especially to direct celestial X-ray and gamma-ray bursts. 2

In space science India has completed the below projects successfully:

  • India’s first satellite was launched “Aryabhata” on 19 April 1975.
  • “Rohini” in 1980, it became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, “SLV-3″
  • “Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle” (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits
  • “Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle” (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits
  • Satellite navigation systems such as GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed
  • In January 2014 the ISRO used the cryogenic engine in a GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14

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Author: Banhita Roy

  • Before we jump to find out a big explanation and meaning of the word podcast let us read the word carefully “podcast” which was for the very first time mentioned by Ben Hammersley in the year 2004 in an article in the Guardian newspaper.
  • In which he this man had rattled off all the possible names for this totally new medium, the “pod” of the word podcast is borrowed from Apple’s “iPod” which is a digital media for playing music, and the “cast” portion of the word podcast being borrowed from the term “broadcast” which is used in Radio.
  • Therefore iPod+Broadcast=Podcast
  • Okay so now let us look into what exactly is a podcast?

  • A “podcast” is quite difficult to explain as it is very little or maybe a lot involved along with this term. A good way to start is by considering and by thinking of a podcast as an Internet Radio On-Demand.One can usually listen to it on their computer. But it is more than that as podcasting is not just confined to just listening to audio one can also watch a video at the same time.
  • With the range and amount of content which podcasting usually provides no regular Broadcast Radio or the Terrestrial Radio as it is called can never compete.
  • The AM, as well as the FM radio band, has a lot of channels. At the same time all the radio stations they usually “Broadcast” their content and they aim to appeal to a large number of audience as much as possible.
  • Because at the end of the day that is what the advertisers look for.With the specific as well as specialized content, it becomes possible to “narrowcast” to the ones only who willingly choose to listen to it.
  • So in case, a particular group of podcast’s audience might be considerably way smaller in comparison to the audience who prefers broadcasting, one can come up with a number of arguments in this context.
  • Many might say that the podcast’s audience is way more targeted as well as interested in the delivery of the content. So, in that case, Satellite Radio, which is able to provide many more channels in comparison to a Broadcast Radio, often takes a step towards podcasting yet it is nowhere close.
  • Podcasts are quite On Demand as it can be listened to on schedule, not only when a Radio Station makes the decision to air it. So, it is like a TiVo.Each podcast consists of a website where it can show different episodes which can also be listened or downloaded for listening in the future.
  • With the help of a downloaded media, one can either listen to it on the computer or they can also take it with the help of a portable digital media player by transferring it or by using a podcast app on the mobile phone. So if it is seen it is similar to a small paperback book.
  • But what exactly truly makes a podcast different as well as unique, and what are the factors which results in its “casting” ability, is how it is able to instantly deliver itself to several podcast distribution points (like the iTunes and Sticher Radio) or maybe the podcatcher applications with the help of a process of syndication also known as RSS (Real Simple Syndication).
  • The listeners can easily get a subscription to podcasts (maximum are free of cost ) just by clicking on its RSS icon or clicking the subscription button.
  • The listener is then walked through how to add that podcast’s syndication in order to “feed” to a pod-catching application which they choose.
  • So every single time when a podcaster releases a new episode, the subscribers will get notified automatically they need not keep on constantly checking back with the podcast’s website in order to find out if any new show has been produced.
  • With the pod-catching software, the episodes of their favorite podcasts can be automatically downloaded all without having to lift a finger.

  • We can find close relevance between podcasts and magazine subscriptions. The only difference in aspect in is “casting” which is a major factor to where podcasts can reach out and have a global audience on the other hand traditional radio has a different limitation of their broadcasting signal strength.
  • Podcasts can be easily produced by the majority, anyone wanting to share or may be willing to communicate with the world. They are not really exclusive to Big Name Media. Because the podcast websites usually have various ways for the listeners to leave as well as comment about every single episode, and they literally enter into a various discussion with other listeners, podcasts are similar to a community of individuals who share a common area of interest.

Energy Harvesting (Read and upload)

What is energy harvesting?
The energy problem

Fossil fuels are finite and environmentally costly. Sustainable, environmentally benign energy is be derived from nuclear fission or captured from ambient sources. Large-scale ambient energy (e.g. solar, wind and tide), is widely available and large-scale technologies are being developed to efficiently capture it.

At the other end of the scale, there are small amounts of ‘wasted’ energy that could be useful if captured. Recovering even a fraction of this energy would have a significant economic and environmental impact. This is where energy harvesting (EH) comes in.

What is EH?

Definition: Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging) is the process in which energy is captured from a system’s environment and converted into usable electric power. Energy harvesting allows electronics to operate where there’s no conventional power source, eliminating the need to run wires or make frequent visits to replace batteries.

EH also has the potential to replace batteries for small, low power electronic devices. This has several benefits:

  • Maintenance free: no need to replace batteries
  • Environmentally friendly: disposal of batteries is tightly regulated because they contain chemicals and metals that are harmful to the environment and hazardous to human health
  • Opens new applications: such as deploying EH sensors to monitor remote or underwater locations
  • Successfully developing EH technology requires expertise from all aspects of physics, including:

  • Energy capture (sporadic, irregular energy rather than sinusoidal)
  • Energy storage
  • Metrology
  • Material science
  • Systems engineering

Where can energy be harvested?

Energy is lost in every industrial process and everyday technology that you can think of, e.g.:

  • Power stations:All the world’s electrical power is generated by heat engines. These are gas or steam-powered turbines that convert heat to mechanical energy, which is then converted to electricity. Approximately two-thirds of the energy input is not converted to electrical power but lost as heat.
  • Computers and microwaves (in fact all our electronic gadgets): lose energy through heat and/or vibration.

How can we harvest waste energy?

Different types of waste energy can be captured using different EH materials. The most promising microscale EH technologies in development include:

  • Vibration, movementand sound, can be captured and transformed into electrical power using piezoelectric materials
  • Heat can be captured and transformed into electrical power using thermoelectric and pyroelectric materials

Energy Harvesting Overview

All processes that involve energy conversion are, to some degree, inefficient. Motors get hot, as do power transistors, automobile engines, and light bulbs; in each case energy is wasted as heat. Radio stations put out megawatts of RF but their signals reach antennas as microwatts. Energy harvesting devices capture some of this wasted energy, convert it to electricity, and put it to work.

The best-known energy harvesting collectors are large solar panels and wind generators, which have become major alternative energy sources for the power grid. But small embedded devices must rely on energy scavenging systems that can capture milliwatts of energy from light, vibration, thermal, or biological sources.

Since the output from energy harvesting devices is usually small and intermittent, a system must be carefully designed that may include a boost converter, a charge controller for a rechargeable Li-Ion or thin-film battery, a regulator for the MCU and other loads, an MCU, sensors, and a wireless connectivity module. The closer an energy harvesting device can come to supplying the overall demands of an embedded system, the closer that system can come to being battery free.

The most widely used energy harvesting devices rely on solar, thermal, RF, and piezoelectric sources of energy.

Photovoltaic (PV) or solar cells convert light energy into electricity. Photovoltaic cells have the highest power density and highest power output of the various energy harvesting devices.

Thermoelectric energy harvesters convert heat into electricity. They consist of arrays of thermocouplers that generate voltage in response to a temperature differential across their bimetal junctions (the Seebeck effect). The reverse is also true: impressing voltage on a thermocouple junction heats one junction while cooling the other which is the basis for heat pumps (the Peltier effect).

RF energy harvesters capture ambient RF radiation, rectify it, boost it, and use it to power ultra-low-power embedded devices. RFID works on that principle, though by reacting to a strong RF field that is directed at the sensor and not by harvesting ambient RF.

Solar geo-engineering

Author: Banhita Roy

  • It is agreed by the Scientists over the world that cutting down global greenhouse emissions as early as possible will turn out to be highly beneficial as it will be a key in order to tackle and manage global warming. But while looking at global emissions we get to see it is still rising.
  • Some researchers in the present day are looking out for various other research to find measures that could be taken alongside emissions cuts which also includes using “solar geo-engineering” technologies.
  • What is Solar geo-engineering?

  • Well, Solar geo-engineering is a term which used to define a number of hypothetical technologies which could, in theory, counteract temperature rise by reflecting the proper amount of sunlight away from the Earth’s surface.
  • By sending a giant mirror back into space or by spraying aerosols back in the stratosphere, the wide range or number of proposed techniques come along with various unique technical, ethical as well as political challenges.
  • Carbon Brief had a conversation with the scientists pioneering research through these techniques in order to find out more and more about their potential uses or the shortfalls as well as the overall feasibility.
  • Heating up

  • All kind of solar geo-engineering also known to be as solar radiation management (SRM) – are together united by their goal in order to limit the various effect of sunlight caused on the Earth, but it also varies widely in the different approach.
  • The various possible methods are reducing the amount of heat which is trapped in clouds by sending a giant sunshade directly up into the orbit or by releasing the aerosols directly into the stratosphere.
  • It not really of any worth that all such upcoming technologies could somehow theoretically decrease global warming, they do not aim to decrease the total amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere hence it will be unable to directly any address kind of troubles and problems which include ocean acidification.
  • As we can observe the research which shows that using solar geo-engineering could somehow indirectly lower the total amount of Carbon Dioxide content in the entire atmosphere by stemming permafrost melt or maybe by reducing the energy-sector emissions as well as causing certain changes to the total carbon-cycle feedback.
  • The main motive of engineering the climate in order to draw a certain limit of sunlight has been debated by many scientists as well as politicians. This debate continuous for more than almost 50 years, but other than studies which are solely based on computer simulations there is very less field research which has been carried out.
  • However, in the past few months, interest in SRM appears to be growing. Last year some scientists who met in a get together in Berlin to discuss the future of geo-engineering. the US House of Representatives conducted a subcommittee meeting to discuss on geo-engineering, along with SRM dominating the entire conversation.
  • But all such interest which have come up has been met with resistance by majority of scientists as well as campaigners, who feel that the all the potential risks of such technologies are yet very far from totally understood.
  • Some are scared that a world which is geo-engineered could come up with its own set of environmental as well as societal challenges, which they say could easily be comparable to or maybe even worse than just a normal climate change.

Industrial water services

Author: SangitaNimbalkar

According to the international charity Water Aid, one in eight human beings, generally in the developing world, goes with no clean, safe water. Every 20 seconds, one kid dies from diarrhea caused by infected water and poor sanitation. In developed countries, illness and death from water infection are far rarer because of wide-scale, mostly government-operated water purification systems. Although these water treatment systems differ, many safeguards public health through astepwise purification process.

1.ION Exchange and Coagulation

This is the primary step of the purification process. The water from the city councils is contaminated with unwanted minerals and this step aids in removing the minerals that form hard water. Some heavy metals like iron are also separated through this procedure. Alum and other chemicals are added to the water and flocs are formed. The dirt particles are then attracted to the flocs which then force them to go down and settle at the bottomof the tank.


In the second step, the floc and the water go through the sedimentation process. When the water settles, floc moves to the bottom and settles there. There are also sediment filters that block dirt particles. This helps to prevent the equipment from being polluted.

3.Filtration and Granular Activated Carbon

In the third step, water is filtered and passed through layers of sand, charcoal, and the rest. The particles that were left after sedimentation are then removed. A carbon filtration process is also involved, and herbicides, chlorine, and other pollutants are eliminated.


In the fourth step, water is moved into a closed tank that has UV lights that is a sterilizing agent. If it is underground water, this step is enough to adequately clean the water because all the microorganisms will be killed. After disinfecting the water, it flows through the pipes where it is processed using reverse osmosis.

5.Carbon Filters

The filter captures the impurities in the water. The RO machine is also protected because contaminants are eliminated thus only clean water goes up in the system.

6.Reverse Osmosis

When the water reaches the homes, it has to undergo another purification process called reverse osmosis. Here, a semi-permeable membrane is used to take away any impurities present in the water. All the dissolved contaminants that might have been missed in the earlier stages are removed here. In addition to this, a sweet taste is added to the water in this stage.

7.Store Purified Water

Clean water is finally stored within the tanks after performing all the above processes.

Blockchains New Hardware Wallet

    By: Vineeta Tawney

Blockchain Hardware Wallet::

  • The blockchain is a type of distributed ledger for maintaining a permanent and tamper-proof record of transactional data.
  • A blockchain functions as a decentralized database that is managed by computers belonging to a peer-to-peer (P2P) network.
  • Each of the computers in the distributed network maintains a copy of the ledger to prevent a single point of failure (SPOF) and all copies are updated and validated simultaneously.
  • A hardware wallet is a special type of bitcoin wallet, which stores the user’s private keys in a secure hardware device.
  • They have major advantages over standard software wallets:
  • -Private keys are often stored in a protected area of a microcontroller, and cannot be transferred out of the device in plaintext
    -Immune to computer viruses that steal from software wallets
    -Can be used securely and interactively, private keys never need to touch potentially-vulnerable software
    -Much of the time, the software is open source, allowing a user to validate the entire operation of the device

Blockchain Hardware Wallet:

    • The blockchainis one of the oldest software wallet providers in the cryptocurrency industry has launched its first hardware product.
    • Blockchain has collaborated with hardware wallet maker Ledger and started taking orders for a new handheld device called “Lockbox”.
    • While there are a number of hardware wallets on the market, Lockbox stands out in two ways, according to Blockchain CEO and co-founder Peter Smith. First, in addition to storing funds offline like other devices, it will facilitate crypto-to-crypto trades through Swap, the company’s native brokerage, which is launching next week.
    • The aim is to make trading easier with an all-in-one account, Smith told Coin-Desk, explaining:“For them, it is really important to get the product to a point where the userdoesn’t need other places to complete user actions in crypto.”
    • Lockbox(hardware wallet):

  • Compatibility: Windows (8+), Mac (10.8+), Linux or Chrome OS. Requires Google Chrome or Chromium, and one USB port to connect your Lockbox.
  • Features
  • -Simple
    No need to download any software. Blockchain Lockbox works seamlessly with your Blockchain Wallet with the minimum steps required to get started.-Secure
    Our dual chip architecture guarantees cryptographic protection so you can store your crypto worry-free. Your private keys stay protected behind your secret PIN.

    We took the hard out of hardware so you can trade your crypto from your fingertips. Easily receive funds in your hardware wallet without being connected.

    -Travel Securely
    Being FIDO Certified, Lockbox can be used as a security key for your Google, GitHub, Dropbox and more!

    -LED Display
    Powered by your computer, know your balance at any time.

  • Cryptovest has explored Blockchain’s interface with regard to Lockbox.
  • It appears, as this is a separate account management interface, which allows users to link their hardware wallets to their accounts and move private keys away from hot storage.
  • It is just a more convenient way for Blockchain users to manage their assets in a manner that lets them have more control over their security.
  • Lockbox is “endpoint-controlled”.In other words, while the wallet connects to the internet by plugging into a computer.A special key set inside the device will only allow it to connect with legitimate websites, deflecting phishing attempts by fake versions of external platforms like MyEtherWallet, for example.
  • Supported Cryptocurrencies: Approximately four cryptocurrencies
  • -BTC

How it works:

Once you have your Lockbox, you can transfer funds from your web wallet to your Lockbox. The advantage of this is that your funds are more secure on the Lockbox than they are in the web wallet.

You can still transfer funds easily from the Lockbox using the “” web wallet, but you can use it only if you have the device with you.

It is not just for cryptocurrency though. The Lockbox is FIDO certified, which means it can also be used as a security key for Google, Dropbox, GitHub, and other accounts.

Security Level:

The Blockchain Lockbox is a hardware wallet, which can add an additional level of security to your funds. It is safer than using the web wallet by itself.

The device itself is a Ledger Nano S with new firmware that makes it compatible with Blockchain Wallet only. It is as secure as a Ledger Nano S.