Author Archives: admin


System On Chip (SoC)

A system-on-chip (SoC) is the integration of functions necessary to implement an electronic system onto a single substrate and contains at least one processor. The only real difference between an SoC and a microcontroller is one of scale.

An SoC contains multiple processing parts, memory, modems, and other essential bits and pieces manufactured together in a single chip that’s soldered onto the circuit board.

Continue reading

Dos and Don’t of Backyard Composting

Dos and Don’t of Backyard Composting

CompostingBackyard Composting

Starting a compost bin is one of the easiest ways to reduce your household’s waste and create nutrient rich soil that can be used throughout your garden. With so many different options and styles of compost bins available these days, the best part is that a compost bin no longer has to be an eyesore in your garden and can easily tie in with your landscaping design. Continue reading

Vector Graphics

An overview of Vector Graphics

Vector graphics,  consist of paths defined by a start and endpoint. These paths can be anything from a line to a series of lines that create a shape like a square or a circle. Despite the simplistic nature of a vector’s building block, paths are used to create extremely complex diagrams. Each path object carries its own mathematical statement that defines how the object should be displayed.

What Is an SVG File?

A file with the SVG file extension is most likely a Scalable Vector Graphics file. Files in this format use an XML-based text format to describe how the image should appear.

Since text is used to describe the graphic, an SVG file can be scaled to different sizes without losing quality—in other words, the format is resolution-independent. This is why website and print graphics are often built in the SVG format, so they can be resized to fit different designs in the future.


Podzolization encompasses the downward migration of Al and Fe, together with organic matter, from the surface areas and their accumulation in the profile’s deep areas.

This process is characterised by a strong acidity that causes the slow development of organic matter (which releases abundant organic compounds with an acidic nature) and an extreme alteration of the mineral phase (releasing abundant elements that are lixiviated by the drainage waters, while the medium is enriched with insoluble elements, such as Fe and Al, which are migrated downward by the organic compounds towards deeper horizons). In short, an eluvial horizon is formed on the surface with intense substance losses.

A process of soil formation, esp. in cool, humid regions, in which the upper layers are leached of iron, lime, and alumina, which are then concentrated in underlying layers.

The evidence that the podzolization process has developed in a soil is reflected in the profile’s spectacular micromorphology, with abundant coverings of organic matter on the sand grains in horizon Bh.


Hydrology and Soil

The relation between Hydrology and Soil

By: Vineeta Tawney

It is important to understand how the water and soil work in the town as well. For instance, one would want the ground to be both permeable and porous so it can store plenty of water for the plants.The hydraulic, or water, cycle as a whole is fairly self-explanatory. Water falls down to the earth through precipitation, such as rain or snow, runs down as discharge into a reservoir such as lakes, rivers, and oceans, and through evaporation, collects again in the sky as clouds. The figure below is a good visual representation of this cycle:

There are a few different types of water, gravitational, hygrosophic, and capillary. Capillary water is what plants (such as the one in the figure below) use to collect nutrients they need. This happens by the water moving up from pore space to pore space, in this case, against gravity.
There are many aquiclude wells. This means that the water comes up to the surface from the water table through its own pressure, and does not have to be pumped. The residents of this small town use these wells to water their crops, cooking, and bathing. What they are most likely unaware of, however is that if they use more water that is replaced by participation, the ground will lower and fill in the area where the water used to be held.. The wells will then dry up, and they will no longer be able to be filled. Residents will have to gather their water from the lake resting near the top of a mountain, or the ocean.
Soil is another important factor in farming. For example, if the soil is too hard or dry, or if it does not have enough nutrients than no, or very few crops will grow. A farming community needs a very lucrative soil to produce its main source of income. Following the graph below, and assuming that Trampoli has a climate similar to North Eastern United States since it has four very distinct seasons that vary dramatically in temperature, and it is near the coast, the process of the soil in Trampoli is somewhere between Poderization and Calification.
Also, looking at the soil profile below, there is a layer of soil that could be considered an ash-gray (at least if it was real). This color is from silica which is caused by a process called illuviation. This is a characteristic of soil formed by Podzolizatoin.

Hurricanes and Global Warming, are they connected?

Hurricanes and Global Warming, are they connected?

 By: Vineeta Tawney

What is Hurricanes

A hurricane is a type of storm called a tropical cyclone, which forms over tropical or subtropical waters.

A tropical cyclone is a rotating low-pressure weather system that has organized thunderstorms but no fronts (a boundary separating two air masses of different densities). Tropical cyclones with maximum sustained surface winds of less than 39 miles per hour (mph) are called tropical depressions.

What is Global Warming?

Global warming is the slow increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere because an increased amount of the energy (heat) striking the earth from the sun is being trapped in the atmosphere and not radiated out into space.

The earth’s atmosphere has always acted like a greenhouse to capture the sun’s heat, ensuring that the earth has enjoyed temperatures that permitted the emergence of life forms as we know them, including humans.

Without our atmospheric greenhouse the earth would be very cold. Global warming, however, is the equivalent of a greenhouse with high efficiency reflective glass installed the wrong way around.

Two massive volcanic eruptions, one year after another placed so much black dust into the upper atmosphere that little sunlight could penetrate. Temperatures plummeted. Crops failed. People died of starvation and the Black Death started its march. As the dust slowly fell to earth, the sun was again able to warn the world and life returned to normal.

Hurricanes and Global Warming, are they connected?

Fig. 1

Global warming is adding more moisture to the atmosphere, providing more fuel for big storms like hurricanes. But tropical cyclones are extremely complicated. How much can we really link them to human-induced climate change? It depends on the link.

The key connection is that between sea surface temperatures and the power of hurricanes. Without going into technical details about the dynamics and thermodynamics involved in tropical storms and hurricanes the basic connection between the two is actually fairly simple: warm water, and the instability in the lower atmosphere that is created by it, is the energy source of hurricanes. This is why they only arise in the tropics and during the season when SSTs are highest.

SST is not the only influence on hurricane formation. Strong shear in atmospheric winds (that is, changes in wind strength and direction with height in the atmosphere above the surface), for example, inhibits development of the highly organized structure that is required for a hurricane to form. In the case of Atlantic hurricanes, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation tends to influence the vertical wind shear, and thus, in turn, the number of hurricanes that tend to form in a given year. Many other features of the process of hurricane development and strengthening, however, are closely linked to SST.

Model-based climate change detection/attribution studies have linked increasing tropical Atlantic SSTs to increasing greenhouse gases, but proposed links between increasing greenhouse gases and hurricane PDI or frequency has been based on statistical correlations. The statistical linkage of Atlantic hurricane PDI to Atlantic SST suggests at least the possibility of a large anthropogenic influence on Atlantic hurricanes. If this statistical relation between tropical Atlantic SSTs and hurricane activity is used to infer future changes in Atlantic hurricane activity, the implications are sobering: the large increases in tropical Atlantic SSTs projected for the late 21st century would imply very substantial increases in hurricane destructive potential–roughly a 300% increase in the PDI by 2100.

On the other hand, Swanson (2008) and others noted that Atlantic hurricane power dissipation is also well-correlated with other SST indices besides tropical Atlantic SST alone, and in particular with indices of Atlantic SST relative to tropical mean SST.

Modern Day Irrigation Methods


By: Vineeta Tawney



  • Irrigation actually means the watering the land to make it fit for agricultural purposes.
  • An irrigation method is the supplying of water via artificial canals and pipes for growing plants and crops in the field.
  • Water is essential for the growth of plants. There are no plants or crops can survive if they do not have access to water in any form.
  • It is, therefore, important to supply water to crops and plants, regularly and as per their necessity. Therefore, irrigation is this cyclic and suitable supply of water to plants.
  • The water for this irrigation gets from various sources such as wells, ponds, rivers, dams, reservoirs, and rainfall.

Continue reading



CoGN1Cognitive Neuroscience the study of human brain

By: Vineeta Tawney

  • Cognitive neuroscience is the branch of studies which deals with the various ways how a human brain enables the human mind.
  • The brain science explores the different ways how individual neurons functions and operate and it communicates to form a way more complex neuronal architectures which comprise the brain of a human.
  • Cognitive science makes uses of the experimental methods of cognitive psychology as well as artificial intelligence for creating and testing the models of a higher-level cognition like the thoughts and the languages.
  • Cognitive neuroscience generally bridges the space between these two domains. It also maps the higher-level cognitive functioning to known brain architectures as well as the known modes of the neuronal processing.

Continue reading