Cultural Evolution

Cultural Evolution

By: Vineeta Tawney

For CNESystems                                                

What is Cultural evolution?

Cultural evolution is an evolutionary theory of social change. It follows from the definition of culture as “information capable of affecting individuals’ behavior that they acquire from other members of their species through teaching, imitation and other forms of social transmission”. Cultural evolution is the change of this information over time.

Cultural evolution, historically also known as sociocultural evolution, was originally developed in the 19th century by anthropologists stemming. Today, cultural evolution has become the basis for a growing field of scientific research in the social sciences, including anthropology, economics, psychology and organizational studies. Previously, it was believed that social change resulted from biological adaptations, but anthropologists now commonly accept that social changes arise in consequence of a combination of social, evolutionary and biological influences.

‘Cultural evolution’ is often used by archaeologists to refer to a progressive historical trend, with progress defined in ethnocentric terms, such as greater social and political complexity.

There have been a number of different approaches to the study of cultural evolution, including dual inheritance theory, sociocultural evolution, memetics, cultural evolutionism and other variants on cultural selection theory. The approaches differ not just in the history of their development and discipline of origin but in how they conceptualize the process of cultural evolution and the assumptions, theories and methods that they apply to its study.

Cultural evolution is the change of culture over time

If we define culture as “information capable of affecting individuals’ behavior that they acquire from other members of their species through teaching, imitation and other forms of social transmission,” cultural evolution is fundamentally just the change of culture over time.

The core idea of cultural evolution is that cultural change constitutes an evolutionary process that shares fundamental similarities with – but also differs in key ways from – genetic evolution. As such, human behavior is shaped by both genetic and cultural evolution. The same can be said for many other animal species; like the tool use of chimpanzees or Caledonian crows or the complex social organization of hives for ants, bees, termites, and wasps.

The roles of transmission and innovation in cultural evolution

Thus far, we have made the analogy between alleles of a gene and forms of a cultural trait, implying that the cultural trait in question can be represented in a binary or discrete manner. Although this approximation is appropriate for some culturally transmitted traits, such as knowing or not knowing how to use a certain tool, or smoking or not smoking, some cultural traits are more naturally regarded as continuous or quantitative traits. For example, cultural norms and preferences, such as degree of risk tolerance, have been modeled as continuous traits and knowledge of a tool or technique has usefully been represented in terms of a quantitative skill level.

What is the importance of Cultural Evolution?

Cultural evolutionary theory has led to significant advances in our understanding of the effects of nonrandom mating, revealing that the transmission and dynamics of cultural traits can be sensitive to both phenotypic and environmental assorting.

Assortative mating, leading to an increased correlation between mates for genetic or cultural traits, can increase both genotypic and phenotypic variance in a population.

Models of culture and human ecology

For thousands of generations humans have been carving their existence in the world with cultural tools that have become integral to their livelihoods, thereby shaping their environment at all scales, both intentionally and unintentionally. Attempting to answer the question of what are the extensions of human biology through culture leads to a striking conclusion: There are few aspects of human biology that have not been shaped by our culture. Human culture has also affected the biology, even the survival, of nonhuman species.

Persona

By thinking about the needs of a fictional persona, designers may be better able to infer what a real person might need. Such inference may assist with brainstorming, use case specification, and features definition

User Flows in UX

The flowchart begins with the consumer’s entry point on the product, like an onboarding screen or homepage, and ends with the final action or outcome, like purchasing a product or signing up for an account. Depicting this process allows designers to evaluate and optimize the user experience and therefore increase client conversion rates.

An example of a user flow in UX design

User flows are extremely useful if you need to:

  • Create an intuitive interface
  • Evaluate existing interfaces
  • Present your product to clients or colleagues

3. Types of user flow charts

  • Task flows
  • Wire flows
  • User flows

Once you have gathered your data from user testing, user flows help determine how many screens are needed, what order they should appear in, and what components need to be present.

flowcharts and UX flows assist other members of the design team and easily communicate the layout of an interface to partners and investors.

My passion

Passion 1:

I would like to think that I am passionate about health and fitness, especially maintaining a healthy lifestyle amongst growing kids.

Kids and teens are sitting around a lot more than they used to. They spend hours every day in front of a screen (TVs, smartphones, tablets, and other devices) looking at a variety of media (TV shows, videos, movies, games). Too much screen time and not enough physical activity add to the problem of childhood obesity.

One of the best ways to get kids to be more active is to limit the amount of time spent in sedentary activities, especially watching TV or other screens.

Were there sports you enjoyed playing when you were little? Did you dance? Climb on trees? Swim? Jump rope? Try to recall what active pastimes gave you the most satisfaction.

You may not be able to replicate the exact activities you did as a child but you can probably find something similar that brings you pleasure now .

Maybe you grew up in a family that didn’t really value being active, or that emphasized sports and activities that weren’t your natural strengths. It can be helpful to be aware of these things and to get some guidance from a coach or personal trainer in working through them.

Think about places you like to be. “Are you more comfortable outdoors or happier at home in front of the TV? Nature lovers might find their fitness passion on local hiking or biking trails, or working out in a park with friends. If you are happier alone watching TV or listening to music, you might be happier at a gym on a cardio machine that faces a bank of plasma screens.

Passion 2:

 

DITA promotes reuse

Reusing content is one of the key features of DITA and DITA provides several methods for reusing content. Oxygen XML Editor provides support for each of these methods.

Reusing Topics in DITA Maps

A DITA topic does not belong to any one publication. You add a DITA topic to a publication by referencing it in a map. You can reference the same topic in multiple maps.

Reusing Content with References and Keys

DITA allows you to reuse content by referencing it in another topic. DITA provides several mechanisms for including content by reference (conrefconkeyrefcoderef).

conref (content reference) creates a direct reference to a specific element of another topic. A conkeyref (content key reference) creates a reference to a key, which then points to a specific element in another topic.

The advantage of using a conkeyref is that you can change the element that is included by changing the key reference. For example, since keys are defined in maps, if you include a topic in multiple maps, you can use a different key reference in each map. A coderef references an external file that contains literal code.

Reusing Content with Reusable Components

DITA allows you to select content in a topic, create a reusable component from it and reference that component in other locations. Each reusable component is created as a separate file. Anytime the content needs to be edited, you only need to update it in the component file and all the locations in your topics that reference it will also be updated. This can help you to maintain continuity and accuracy throughout your documents.

Reusing Content with Variables

DITA allows you to replace the content of certain elements with a value that is pointed to by a key. This mechanism effectively means that you can create variables in your content, which you can then create multiple outputs by changing the value that the key points to. This is done by profiling the definition of the key value, or by substituting another map with a different key value.

Reusing Content with DITA 1.3 Concepts

DITA 1.3 allows you to use some advanced concepts to expand content reuse possibilities even further. Key Scopes (or scoped keys) allow you to reuse topics with variable content depending on the particular context and it maximizes reuse possibilities for keys. Branch Filtering allows you to reuse the same content that is profiled in multiple ways within the same publication, each time using a different filter.

CASB – Cloud access security broker

The most common way to manage data security and user access in cloud computing is through the use of a Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB). This technology allows you to see all your cloud applications in use and to apply security policy across them. When using a CASB, your security management can consist of the following primary tasks:

  1. View all cloud services in use and assess their risk. CASB technology uses network log data from secure web gateways, firewalls, or security incident and event management (SIEM) products to show all the cloud services being accessed from your network and managed devices, including those that employees sign up for without IT, like shadow IT services. It then displays a risk rating, so you can decide whether to continue to allow access or not.
  2. Audit and adjust native security settings. Many SaaS applications, including Office 365, come with native settings like access and sharing permissions. From a single console, you can set policies for how you want to set permissions across multiple cloud services.
  3. Use Data Loss Prevention to prevent theft. Some of your intellectual property or regulated data will most likely make it into a cloud service like Dropbox. Through an API connection to the service itself, you can classify data and set policy to remove, quarantine, or encrypt it based on your chosen policy. This applies to all data in the service, whether it comes from a device or network you know about, or from any unmanaged device you can’t see.
  4. Encrypt data with your own keys. Depending on your risk tolerance, you may not want to trust the cloud provider’s native encryption to protect your data. If you do, the provider will have your encryption keys and technically could access your data. Instead, you have the option to use your own encryption keys and manage them yourself, blocking access from any third party but allowing authorized users to use the application with normal functionality.
  5. Block sharing with unknown devices or unauthorized users. One of the most common security gaps in cloud computing is someone signing into a cloud service from an unmanaged device and accessing data without your visibility. To stop that, you can set requirements for the devices that can access data within the cloud services you manage, so only the devices you know are allowed to download anything. You can similarly control sharing of information to unauthorized users by changing their permissions or “role” such as owner,

Cloud CRM – Marketing automation

Marketing Automation

CRM Resources >> User Guide >> Marketing Automation

As part of the marketing automation, the CRM provides Campaign management, which is useful for integrating your organization’s sales and marketing activities.
With this CRM campaign management features, you can effectively plan marketing expenses and improve the quality of the lead generation process. Campaign management integrates leads and opportunities to help your organization measure campaign performance and effectiveness.

Campaigns

Plan, execute and monitor the performance of marketing activities with the CAMPAIGN function in eZnet CRM.

Create Campaign

Campaign is the promotion or marketing of the products and services that your business offers. Managing a Campaign in this module is the hub for adding campaigns for all modules, namely: Lead, Quote and Opportunity.

Add Campaign

Create a new Campaign in CRM using the given fields indicated by asterisks in the Standard Fields.

edit campaign details

Add Campaign to Lead, Quote & Opportunity

You can add a campaign to a Lead, Quote or Opportunity module by following the details of each module.

You can also choose an existing campaign and apply it to your Lead, Quote or Opportunity.
 Only previous added campaigns in the Campaign module are available for selection.
When you have chosen the Campaign for a Lead, Quote or Opportunity, immediately it uploads to the respective modules, as seen below.

manage campaign details

Campaign Documents

Any supplemental documents associated with a specific campaign can be uploaded in the Campaign module. On the right of the CRM screen you should notice a menu column as seen below:

no records found

Select “Document” and the screen above should appear, with the option to upload documents related to the chosen campaign.
In this next screen, you can name, assign, upload and add a description to the document you wish to upload.

upload campaign documents

If the upload is successful, you will receive a notice. A document ID will be created and you will have the option to download or delete the document.
 Only the following file types are supported in the CRM document pdf, doc, docx, ppt, pptx, xls, xlsx, rtf and txt.
Many leads may be associated to a single campaign, you may have included some existing leads to take part in a particular campaign. In such cases, it is necessary that you keep track of all the leads as a result of the campaign. Using the Campaigns module, you can store all the necessary details in a well-organized manner, for future reference.

Wiki writing – basic info

Atlassian Confluence to document a software system. Range of Confluence features include know how to organise content, link articles to JIRA, structure the table of contents, set up related articles, and manage the workspace, permissions, and articles.

In my view, wikis are great for collaboration and are really good for in-house communications.

Confluence (or another major Wiki tool) to migrate and develop product documentation for one of our clients. The migration task requires some information architecture.

Wiki engines, preferably with Confluence or MediaWiki (2+ years)

Required Skills:

* Ability to design, implement, and maintain wiki namespaces and pages
* Ability to migrate legacy documents to wiki
* Ability to architect scalable wiki namespaces and page linking layouts
* Ability to create wiki templates
* Ability to fully utilize tagging and labeling wiki functionalities
* Excellent writing and communication skills
* Understanding of software development life cycle

DITA – Component Content Management System

Single Source Content Management

easyDITA is an enterprise-grade Component Content Management System that serves as a single repository for all your content, providing a single source of the truth when developing, managing, and maintaining your documentation.

Reusing Content with References and Keys

DITA allows you to reuse content by referencing it in another topic. DITA provides several mechanisms for including content by reference (conrefconkeyrefcoderef). A conref (content reference) creates a direct reference to a specific element of another topic. A conkeyref (content key reference) creates a reference to a key, which then points to a specific element in another topic. The advantage of using a conkeyref is that you can change the element that is included by changing the key reference. For example, since keys are defined in maps, if you include a topic in multiple maps, you can use a different key reference in each map. A coderef references an external file that contains literal code.

Oxygen XML Editor provides support for all of these mechanisms.

While the conref and conkeyref mechanisms can be used to reference any content element, it is considered best practice to only conref or conkeyref content that is specifically set and managed as reusable content. This practice helps reduce expensive errors, such as an author accidentally deleting the source element that other topics are including by the reference. Oxygen XML Editor can help you create a reusable component from your current content.

VPN

1.1 What is SoftEther VPN?

SoftEther VPN is next-generation VPN software that offers stability, flexibility and expandability, and is compatible with all advanced networks that produce wide bandwidth an high load required by large corporations and Internet providers as well as networks for individuals and homes and networks for small and medium size businesses.

 

This section contains an overview of SoftEther VPN, a comparison with older VPN protocol, and a description of its advanced functions.