Sindhis – Caste System!!

By: Vineeta Tawney

Sindhis don’t follow any caste system, but there are certain loosely defined ‘castes’ or ‘zaats’ that are distinct from each other as they have come to be associated with distinct cultural and behavioral characteristics. These qualities or traits arose either from their professional differences or from the cities and places of living. For example Hyderabadis are known because they lived in Hyderabad which was comparatively an advanced and prosperous city. Similarly Shikarpuris are people from Shikarpur. This way there are many classifications in the Sindhi community. We have tried to enumerate some of the better known types in this article.

AMILS – The word Amil comes from amal which means to practice. These are Hindu Kshatriyas who worked as accountants in the governments of Mirs and Kalhodas in Sindh. Nowadays their descendants are also known as Amils even though they may not be in service. Amils residing in Hyderabad would be known as Hyderabadi Amils. Some of the Amils also resided in Khairpur, Larkana and Sevanh. Hyderabadis are supposed to be of a higher Zaat, well educated and fair skinned because the city of Hyderabad in those days was an education and cultural hub.

BHAIBANDS – In Sindh, the business class of Sindhis was known as Bhaibands. These people were into trading and business activities in the kingdom of the Mirs. It would be possible to find one Amil brother and one Bhaiband brother in the same household. In those days Amils would marry only Amils and Bhaibands would marry only Bhaibands. Nowadays even though they may be in service, yet they are known as Bhaibands if their ancestors belonged to this caste.

SINDHWARKIS – Sindhwarkis are those Bhaibands of Sindh who traded in the materials made in Sindh and then exported it. In 1843, the British conquered Sindh and at that time, the Hyderabadi Bhaibands supplied the materials for daily needs to the British soldiers. Because of their contact with the British army they supplied all types of material to them, even from the villages of Sindh. Then these Bhaibands went to Bombay, from there to Columbia and Rangoon. In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened and many Sindhwarkis went to Europe and Singapore and then spread all over the world, and began trading from many other ports and cities. This is the now known category of Sindhi NRIs

CHHAPRUS – The word Chhapru comes from the word Chhappar meaning mountain. These people usually lived in the mountain regions in Sindh and later came down to stay in Karachi. Chhaprus have followed their own distinct rituals and customs. Some of the Chhaprus are also known as Saprus.

BHATIAS – Bhatias are descendants of Shri Krishna. There are thousands of Sindhi Bhatias all over the world today. They usually marry among themselves and are strict vegetarians. Many don’t even eat onions and garlic. Some of their sub-castes are Gajria, Kajria, Parmal etc.

MASANDS – Masands were appointed to spread Sikhism by the fourth Guru, Guru Ramdas. They would spread the message of Gurbani in small towns and villages and collect funds. Then on Diwali day they would go and meet their Guru and hand over the collection. They would then be honored by their Guru. Even today there are around 300 Masands in India; some of them are brilliant educationists and social workers.

THAKURS – These are the descendants of Lord Jhulelal. They are the official Brahmins of the Sindhi community. They head many Sindhi Tikanas and Durbars.

BHAGNARIS – There were two small villages in Baluchistan known as Bhag and Nari which explains the name of this Bhagnari community. They were the community of dry fruits and spice merchants of those days. Some Bhagnaris were also wine merchants. They strictly married in their own community. Some of the famous Bhagnaris are Popleys, Nanomal Issardas and so on.

LOHANAS – Lohanas are the desendants of Luv, the son of Bhagwan Ramchandra. They are the Kshatriyas who lived in an iron fort built by them in Punjab known as Loh-Ghar, which later came to be known as Lahore. They came to Sindh from Lahore from where many Lohanas migrated to Kutch. They are usually engaged in trading and other business.

There are many more such Jaatis in Sindhis and it is not possible to describe each and everyone in this small article. Efforts must be made to research, classify and tabulate these various castes and sub-castes because it has importance for the future generation.



Recognize Image Recognition

ImgRecWhat is image recognition?

Okay, image recognition. A computer using its ‘eyes’, as you would use yours.

Image recognition is the creation of a neural network that processes all the pixels that make up an image. These networks are presented with heaps of images of objects – already identified – so that the network can learn and recognize similar objects.

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By: Vineeta Tawney

In IndiaArugula is called as “Gargeer”. … Arugula ( Eruca Sativa) is a leafy vegetable which is mainly used in salads. The salad greens are known for its pungent, peppery tasting leaves. It is an annual crop and prefers cool weather to thrive

Nutrient-rich and low in calories – just 20 calories in about three cups – arugula provides an excellent source of folate, vitamins A and C, and over 100% of your daily vitamin K needs. This same serving supplies a good source of calcium, magnesium and manganese.

Food for Mood

Ashwini Oza, Consulting Psychologist

IMG-20200905-WA0042 Stress

Foods rich in vitamin C can reduce both physical and psychological effects of stress by reducing levels of cortisol, the hormone responsible for the fight or flight response. All fruit and vegetables, but especially citrus, kiwis and peppers are good sources. Cooking and exposure to light can damage this delicate antioxidant – so eating plenty of fresh, raw produce is the most effective way to increase our levels.

Lightly steaming broccoli is fine, but boiling allows nutrients to leach out into the water, which is then discarded.


Make sure you’re getting enough tryptophan. This amino acid is crucial for producing serotonin – the feel-good hormone. It’s also needed to produce melatonin – the hormone that tells us it’s time to settle down and switch off for the night. Poultry, eggs, brown rice, tofu, oats, dairy and nuts are all good sources. Tart cherries, pineapple, bananas and oranges are natural sources of melatonin, which also happens to be a powerful antioxidant.

Brain Fog

A rainbow of brightly coloured fruits and vegetables is the best way to get a wide variety of antioxidants needed to support vascular health and protect your neurons from the damaging effects of oxidative stress. Omega 3 fatty acids, found in oily fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines and anchovies), nuts and seeds are crucial for keeping the brain well-nourished and functioning properly and low levels are repeatedly linked with depression and low mood. If you’re vegetarian, don’t like oily fish or can’t eat nuts it’s a good idea to take a daily supplement of fish oil or omega 3 essential fatty acids.

Poor Mood

Serotonin-enhancing drugs are popular, but they have side effects. Fortunately, there are plenty of natural and safer ways to boost our levels. Greens (spinach, kale, arugula, celery, cabbage, cauliflower), lentils, oranges and papaya are good sources of vitamin B6 and folate – needed to produce serotonin and dopamine. Low levels of both are linked to depression. Chilli peppers and cayenne help elevate mood thanks to capsaicin, a compound that sends a message to the brain to release endorphins – the body’s natural painkillers and mood enhancers. Chocolate boosts serotonin and dopamine (no surprise there) and carbohydrates increase serotonin levels by boosting our brain’s ability to use tryptophan. That’s why we tend to crave them when we’re feeling down. Opt for healthy complex carbs like whole grains and vegetables, instead of the refined, starchy carbs and junk food.

Mood Killers

Just as there are foods that lift your mood, so there are things that work the other way. White, refined, processed foods and sugars are often to blame as after the “quick high” comes the fall and with it the return of crankiness and irritability. Alcohol may have an initial relaxing effect, but in the long run it’s a depressant that interferes with your body’s ability to produce serotonin by wreaking havoc on your blood sugar levels. Caffeine is a stimulant that has similar negative effects on your blood sugar levels.

On a final note, remember that your brain is 85% water and mood disorders are linked to dehydration – Make sure you hydrate!

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SWARM mode

swarm2By: Vineeta Tawney

Docker Engine swarm mode makes it easy to publish ports for services to make them available to resources outside the swarm. All nodes participate in an ingress routing mesh. The routing mesh enables each node in the swarm to accept connections on published ports for any service running in the swarm, even if there’s no task running on the node. The routing mesh routes all incoming requests to published ports on available nodes to an active container. Continue reading

Decentralized Applications – dApps

By: Vineeta Tawney

DApppsAs opposed to centralized applications that run on a single computer, decentralized applications run on a P2P network of computers. They have existed since the advent of P2P networks.

  • The frontend of a decentralized application represents what you see, and the backend represents the entire business logic.
  • This business logic is represented by one or several smart contracts interacting with the underlying blockchain.

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Amino Acid is just as important

Need of Amino Acid

AminoAmino acids, often referred to as the building blocks of proteins, are compounds that play many critical roles in your body.
They’re needed for vital processes like the building of proteins and synthesis of hormones and neurotransmitters.
Some may also be taken in supplement form for a natural way to boost athletic performance or improve mood.
Tryptophan is needed for the production of serotonin, a chemical that acts as a neurotransmitter in your body.
Serotonin is an essential regulator of mood, sleep and behaviors.
While low serotonin levels have been linked to depressed mood and sleep disturbances, several studies have shown that supplementing with tryptophan can reduce symptoms of depression, boost mood and improve sleep.
Amino acids are grouped into three categories – Essential, Nonessential, and Conditional. The group to which a specific amino acid belongs depends on where your body obtains it.
Essential Amino Acids: Your body cannot produce essential amino acids. These must be obtained by an external source, usually through food or supplementation. Most people are able to get enough essential amino acids through their diets. The essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
Nonessential amino acids: Nonessential amino acids are those which your body naturally produces throughout the day whether or not you eat food that contains them. The nonessential amino acids are alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid.
Conditional amino acids: These amino acids are produced only under specific circumstances, typically when your body is fighting off an illness or dealing with stress. The conditional amino acids are arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine, ornithine, proline, and serine.
Why Do We Need Amino Acids?
Blood Sugar Control
The way in which your body responds to the glucose we consume is crucial; it’s how we access and utilize the calories contained in our food. At its most basic level insulin is released from the pancreas in response to food. Insulin – a hormone – then signals to other cells in the body to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. Issues with this system can lead to the symptoms we know as diabetes, which can have serious consequences if not managed correctly.
Immune Function
The white blood cells circulating around our body are a key tool in the fight against infection. Here the amino acids in your body play a number of important roles. Firstly, of course, they help to provide the energy needed to mount an attack.
Hormone Production
Hormones can be thought of as signaling molecules, encouraging the body to respond to a stimulus. Hormones can raise our blood pressure during exercise, encourage us to sweat when we’re hot and a whole lot more. Amino acids are also important here as they either serve as the basis for creating specific hormones, or encourage these hormones to be released.

Who Can Benefit from Amino Acids?

Since amino acids help build protein chains and play a supporting role in almost every part of your body, everyone can benefit from amino acids. Supplements of protein and amino acids are often recommended to athletes and active individuals to help boost performance and maintain muscle and tissue strength. Amino acids may help athletic performance in a variety of ways, such as:

  • Increasing tolerance to pain during exercise so that athletes can push themselves further during training
  • Modifying the way the body perceives fatigue, prolonging how long athletes can perform before fatigue sets in
  • Decreasing the duration of recovery from overtraining
  • Improving immune function for less frequency of illness or infection
  • Improving performance in aerobic training
  • Supporting blood flow for improved endurance
  • Improving the development of lean muscle mass and overall strength
  • Improving antioxidant production to reduce cellular damage


By: Vineeta Tawney

NanotechWhat is nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology has nanomaterials which can be classified into one, two and three dimensions nanoparticles. This classification is based upon different properties it holds such as scattering of light, absorbing x rays, transport electric current or heat. Continue reading

About the Arecibo

The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, and part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC). The observatory consists of a 305 m (1,000 ft) spherical reflector dish built into a natural sinkhole, a cable-mount steerable receiver mounted 150 m (492 ft) above the dish, and several radar transmitters for emitting signals. For more than 50 years, the Arecibo Observatory was the world’s largest single-aperture telescope, surpassed in July 2016 by the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) in China.

Arecibo, a giant radio observatory nestled in the lush mountains of Puerto Rico, did some of the dreamiest work in astronomy. But it was forced to stop operations this year after suffering unprecedented damage, and officials now believe that it is beyond repair. Instead of trying to fix it, they’re going to tear it down.

Over the years, Arecibo has built a reputation as a resilient institution; it has faced danger and damage, but it has always endured. In its lifetime, it has survived earthquakes and storms, including the hurricane that devastated Puerto Rico in 2017, which damaged some of the dish. This year, a month before the first cable failure presaged Arecibo’s downfall, the observatory weathered a tropical storm in silence and then powered up as soon as the skies cleared, ready to chase an asteroid as it zoomed past Earth. Even after the second cable broke this month, officials wanted badly to save the telescope. “It’s just too important of a tool for the advancement of science,” Francisco Cordova, the observatory’s director, said at the time. The expectation was that Arecibo would bounce back yet again.